6. AXI4 to AXI4-Lite Bridge¶
An AXI4 master device can be configured to work on an AXI4-Lite cluster as a master using the
bridge. This module implements a bridge/adapter which can be used to convert AXI-4 transactions into AXI4-Lite
transactions. This bridge acts as a slave on the AXI4
interface and as a master on an AXI4-Lite interface. Both the protocols are little endian.
The bridge is parameterized to handle different address and data sizes of either
side with the following contraints:
- The AXI4 address size must be greater than or equal to the AXI4-Lite address size.
- The AXI4 data size must be greater than of equal to the AXI4-Lite data size.
- The AXI4 data and AXI4-Lite data should both be byte-multiples
The bridge also supports spliting of read/write bursts from the AXI4 side to individual requests on the AXI4-Lite cluster.
A Connectable instance is also provided which can directly connect an AXI4 master interface to a AXI4-Lite-slave interface.
The verilog RTL will have a AXI4 slave interface which should be connected to a AXI4 master device and will have an AXI4-Lite master interface on the other side which should be connected to an AXI4-Lite slave cluster.
The bridge interface has the following parameters:
||size of the id fields on the AXI4 interface|
||size of the address fields on the read and write channels of the AXI4 interface|
||size of the data fields on the read-response and write-data channels of the AXI4 interface|
||size of the address field on the AXI4-Lite interface|
||size of the read and write data fields on the AXI4-Lite interface|
||size of the user field on both the AXI and the AXI4-Lite sides.|
6.2. Micro Architecture¶
The bridges convert single beat or multi-beat requests on the AXI4 channels to single-beat requests on the respective AXI4-Lite channels. Thus, per channel (read or write) there is only once outstanding transaction active at a time.
The transaction ID (awid or arid) received is stored in the conversion bridge, and retrieved during response transfers as BID or RID.
6.2.1. Differing Address sizes¶
When the AXI4 and AXI4-Lite address sizes are different, then the lower bits of the AXI4 addresses are used on the AXI4-Lite side.
6.2.2. Differing Data sizes¶
When the AXI4 and AXI4-Lite data sizes are different, each single beat of the AXI4 request (read or write) is split into multiple smaller child bursts (sent as individual AXI4-Lite requests) which matches AXI4-Lite data size. A beat is complete only when its corresponding child-bursts are over. The next single-beat address is generated based on the burst-mode request and the burst size. Thus, the bridge can support all AXI4 burst-modes: incr, fixed and wrap.
Also when the source (AXI4 side) data size is larger then the target (AXI4-Lite side), the data bytes and the write strobes are aligned based on the address to reflect correctly on the target side.
When instantiated with same data-sizes, the child-burst logic is ommitted.
6.2.3. Error mapping¶
When the data-sizes are the same the AXI4-Lite errors simple propagated to the AXI4 side without any changes. However, when the data sizes differ, a single beat from the AXI4 can cause multiple SLVERR and DECERR on the AXI4-Lite side, in which case the AXI4 is responded with SLVERR i.e. SLVERR is a sticky error.
6.3. Using the AXI4 to AXI4-Lite Bridge¶
The IP is designed in BSV and available at: https://gitlab.com/incoresemi/blocks/fabrics The following steps demonstrate on how to configure and generate verilog RTL of the cross-bar IP.
The user is expected to have the downloaded and installed open-source bluespec compiler available at: https://github.com/BSVLang/Main
6.3.1. Configuration and Generation¶
The IP uses the python based cogapp tool to generate bsv files with cofigured instances. Steps to install the required tools to generate the configured IP in verilog RTL can be found in Appendix. Python virtual environment needs to be activated before proceeding to the following steps.
Clone the repo:
git clone https://gitlab.com/incoresemi/blocks/fabrics.git ./manager.sh update_deps cd bridges/test
The yaml file:
axi2axil_bridge_config.yamlis used for configuring the crossbar. Please refer to Table 6.1 for information on the parameters used in the yaml file.
Generate Verilog: use the following command with required settings to generate verilog for synthesis/simulation:
make TOP_FILE=axi2axil_bridge.bsv TOP_MODULE=mkaxi2axil_bridge generate_instances
The generated verilog file is available in:
Interface signals: in the generated verilog, all the AXI4 signals start with the prefix
AXI4_and the AXI4-Lite signals start with the prefix
AXI4-Lite_. Since the IP is a synchronous IP, the same clock and reset (active-low) signals (
RST_N) are used by all channles across all devices.
Simulation: The top module for simulation is
mkaxi2axil_bridge. Please follow the steps mentioned in Section 8.2 when compiling the top-module for simulation
6.3.2. Verilog Signals¶
Table 6.2 describes the signals in the generated verilog for the following configuration
axi_id: 4 axi_addr: 32 axi_data: 32 axil_addr: 24 axil_data: 16 user : 0
|CLK||Input||1||clock for all channels|
|RST_N||Input||1||an active low reset|
|AXI4_AWREADY||Output||1||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_WREADY||Output||1||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_BVALID||Output||1||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_BID||Output||4||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_BRESP||Output||2||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARREADY||Output||1||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_RVALID||Output||1||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_RID||Output||4||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_RDATA||Output||32||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_RRESP||Output||2||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4_RLAST||Output||1||signal sent to axi4 master|
|AXI4L_AWVALID||Output||1||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_AWADDR||Output||24||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_AWPROT||Output||3||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_WVALID||Output||1||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_WDATA||Output||16||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_WSTRB||Output||2||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_BREADY||Output||1||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_ARVALID||Output||1||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_ARADDR||Output||24||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_ARPROT||Output||3||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_RREADY||Output||1||signal sent to axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4_AWVALID||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWID||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWADDR||Input||32||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWLEN||Input||8||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWSIZE||Input||3||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWBURST||Input||2||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWLOCK||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWCACHE||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWPROT||Input||3||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWQOS||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_AWREGION||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_WVALID||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_WDATA||Input||32||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_WSTRB||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_WLAST||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_BREADY||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARVALID||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARID||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARADDR||Input||32||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARLEN||Input||8||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARSIZE||Input||3||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARBURST||Input||2||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARLOCK||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARCACHE||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARPROT||Input||3||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARQOS||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_ARREGION||Input||4||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4_RREADY||Input||1||signal driven by axi4 master|
|AXI4L_AWREADY||Input||1||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_WREADY||Input||1||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_BVALID||Input||1||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_BRESP||Input||2||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_ARREADY||Input||1||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_RVALID||Input||1||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_RRESP||Input||2||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|
|AXI4L_RDATA||Input||16||signal driven by the axi4lite slaves|